What is Cervix
The cervix is one of the parts of the female reproductive system that lies between the uterus and vagina. The cervix has a central canal and an internal andexternal opening, and is between two and three centimetres long. The ectocervix refers to the outer part of the cervix, and has an epithelia that changes from a layer of column-type cells to multiple layers of flat cells over time. Because of this change, known as metaplasia, this part of the cervix is at increased risk of cancer.The cervix is also important in fertility and childbirth, with the cervical mucous used in several methods of fertility awareness, such as the Creighton Model and Billings Method, due to its changes in consistency throughout the menstrual period. The size of the cervix is also used to divide labour into stages. The shape of the cervix can change, particularly after normal childbirth, changing from a slit to a more rounded opening.The cervix has been documented anatomically since at least the time of Hippocrates, over 2,000 years ago.
What is Cervix Function
The cervix is part of the female reproductive system, lying between the vagina and the uterus.The cervix is one of the organs in the female reproductive system between the vagina and uterus. The cervix has a central canal, which has an external opening to the vagina, and an internal opening to the uterus. These structures are also known as theinternal and externa os. The part of the cervix outside of the external opening in the vagina is called the ectocervix, and the part within the vagina known as the endocervix. The cervix is about 2–3 cm long.
The cervical canal varies greatly in length and width, and can measure 7–8 mm at its widest diameter in pre-menopausal adults. The ectocervix has a convex, elliptical surface and is divided into anterior and posterior labia (lip–shaped structures). The size and shape of the external opening and the ectocervix can vary according to age, hormonal state, and whether natural, or normal childbirth has taken place. Where no natural childbirth has taken place, the external orifice appears as a small, circular opening of about 8mm. On average, the ectocervix is 3 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. In women who have given birth naturally (vaginal childbirth), the ectocervix appears bulkier and the external os appears a lot wider.
After menstruation and directly under the influence of estrogen, the cervix undergoes a series of changes in position and texture. During most of the menstrual cycle, the cervix remains firm, and is positioned low and closed. However, with approaching ovulation, the cervix becomes softer, and rises to open, in response to the higher levels of oestrogen present. These changes are accompanied by the production of cervical mucus, supportive of the survival and movement of sperm.
The cervix is supplied by the descending cervical branch of the uterine artery.
The lymphatic drainage of the cervix is along the uterine arteries and cardinal ligaments to the parametrial, external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, and obturator and presacral lymph nodes.From these pelvic lymph nodes, drainage proceeds to the paraaortic lymph nodes. In some instances, the lymphatics drain directly to the paraaortic nodes.
Nerves supplying the cervix pass through uterosacral ligaments.
As a component of the female repoductive system, the cervix is derived from the two paramesonephric ducts, which develop around the sixth week of embryogenesis. During development, the outer parts of the two ducts fuse, forming a single urogenital canal that will become the vagina, cervix and uterus.
The epithelium of the cervix varies. The transformation zone, also referred to as the squamocolumnar junction, is adjacent to the borders of the ectocervix and the endocervix of the canal; and refers to the area where the change occurs between the squamous epithelium lining the ectocervix to the columnar epithelium that lines the endocervix. The squamous epithelium of the ectocervix is without keratin, and is continuous with the adjacent vagina. Underlying both types of epithelium is a tough layer of collagen. The transformation zone undergoes physiological changes at different times. At puberty, the columnar epithelium extends outwards, and cover portions of the ectocervix. The cervix also undergoes changes related to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy[clarification needed]. Additionally, the transformation zone may retreat post-menopause, such that the ectocervix is again covered with stratified squamous epithelium. Also, when the endocervix is exposed to the harsh acidic environment of the vagina it undergoes metaplasia to squamous epithelium. what is Cervix Problem , Solution with Herbal Treatment ?
1.Cervical Cancer 2.Cervix Disorders 3.Genital Warts 4. Gonorrhea 5. HPV 6.Trichomoniasis
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The virus spreads through sexual contact. Most women’s bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You’re at higher risk if you smoke, have many children, use birth control pills for a long time, or have HIV infection.