Family Marriage Problems (Cousin marriage Problems )
The marriage between people who share at least one grandparent. The attitude towards such marriages varies considerably across cultures and legaljurisdictions. It may be considered ideal and actively encouraged, or uncommon but still legal, or considered incest and legally prohibited. Marriages between first and second cousins account for over 10% of marriages worldwide. They are particularly common in the Middle East, where in some nations they account for over half of all marriages. In many cultures, only certain specific types of cousin marriages are permitted, while others are prohibited. In western culture, they have been legal in most jurisdictions through most of history and were considered socially acceptable until the first half of the 20th century; indeed, they were the norm in royal families, with Queen Victoria-Albert and William-Mary being two of numerous examples. However, in recent years, such marriages are often stigmatized in parts of the Western world. Indeed, the diversity of attitudes towards cousin marriage, even within the same culture, has meant that its study features prominently in the field of anthropology, notably in alliance theory.
Consonant with this cultural diversity, the attitude of various religions on the question of cousin marriage is also diverse. An extreme prohibition is found in certain texts inHinduism, which forbid marriage until the degree of 6th cousin if the relationship is entirely agnatic (i.e. the man and woman have the same surname; the entire chain of relationship consists purely of men). The same texts permit marriage between second cousins if the man and woman are related in other ways. Indeed, several cultures permit certain types of cousin marriage while prohibiting other types of cousin marriage. In a large number of geographically dispersed cultures, including in South India, among the Iroquois and certain other North American First Peoples, Indigenous Australians and the Maori of New Zealand, cross cousin marriages are permitted whileparallel cousin marriages are forbidden. The children of first-cousin marriages have an increased risk of genetic disorders, though the incremental risk enhancement is relatively small, according to many researchers. Supporters of cousin marriage in the West view legal bans as discrimination, while opponents may appeal to morality or other arguments.
In Pakistan there is the concept of biladari or “caste network,” whose members may or may not be related. Marrying within the extended family allows Muslim Pakistanis
Diagnosis of Barth Syndrome
Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare, X-linked genetic disorder of lipid metabolism that primarily affects males across different ethnicities. Typically, boys with BTHS present with hypotonia (low muscle tone) and dilated cardiomyopathy (labored breathing, poor appetite, and/or slow weight gain) at or within the first few months after birth. Other important features of Barth syndrome include bacterial infections because of neutropenia (a reduction in the number of white blood cells called neutrophils),
muscle weakness, fatigue,
and growth delay. Although most children with Barth syndrome manifest all of these characteristics, some have only one or two of these abnormalities and, as a result, often are given incorrect diagnoses. Barth syndrome occurs in many different ethnic groups and does not appear to be more common in any one group. To date, there are no good studies of the population or birth incidence of Barth syndrome. The gene for Barth syndrome, tafazzin (TAZ, also called G4.5), is located on the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq28). Mutations in the tafazzin gene lead to decreased production of an enzyme required for the synthesis of “cardiolipin,” a special lipid that is important in energy met
Alaming rise in genetic diseases in pakistan
GENE IS a unit of inheritance in a living organism. These are inhabitant of all information that is necessary to build up a cell, maintain its normal function and pass down genetic information onto the next generations. According to Human Genome Project, it is estimated that there are 20,000 to 25,000 protein-coding genes in human DNA. Human DNA is made up of four nucleic bases namely Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine; abbreviated as A, C, T and G respectively. The precise order of As, Cs, Ts and Gs is critical as it is responsible for diversity of life on the face of the Earth. This sequence dictates, whether an organism is human or any other specie i.e. mice, chimps, rice or a fruit fly. With the aforementioned functional significance of a gene we can anticipate the drastic effects that could result with an alteration in the genetic make-up of an organism.