What is Menstruation cycle ?
Common Name.Period , Menses, Monthly bleeding , Menstrual period. Medical Names.Menstruation.
The menstrual cycle is the monthly series of changes a woman’s body goes through in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy. Each month, one of the ovaries releases an egg — a process called ovulation. At the same time, hormonal changes prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If ovulation takes place and the egg isn’t fertilized, the lining of the uterus sheds through the vagina. This is a menstrual period.
The menstrual cycle, which is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn’t the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. For the first few years after menstruation begins, long cycles are common. However, menstrual cycles tend to shorten and become more regular as you age.Your menstrual cycle might be regular — about the same length every month — or somewhat irregular, and your period might be light or heavy, painful or pain-free, long or short, and still be considered normal. Within a broad range, “normal” is what’s normal for you. Keep in mind that use of certain types of contraception, such as extended-cycle birth control pills, will alter your menstrual cycle. Talk to your health care provider about what to expect.
What causes menstrual blood problems?
Changes in the color and thickness of menstrual blood are often normal. But there are a number of problems that might cause abnormal clots to form in your menstrual blood or lead to the changes in color or thickness during your period. Remember, it’s important to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor. Problems that can cause changes include:
- Miscarriage. Women who have miscarried may pass blood clots or gray clumps of tissue from the vagina. If there is a chance you are pregnant, be sure to check with your doctor immediately if you notice excessive bleeding or clotting.
- Fibroids. Uterine fibroids are also called leiomyomas. These are noncancerous tumors that form in the uterus. Fibroids do not always cause symptoms. In fact, increasing research information suggests that most women with small “fibroid” tumors have no symptoms at all. But women with fibroids may notice greater than usual amounts of menstrual blood. If you have fibroids, you may have more clots in your period than you had in the past.
- Hormonal changes. Your body relies on a delicate balance of progesterone and estrogen. These hormones regulate the production and shedding of the uterine lining. When this balance is disturbed, it can lead to the development of an excessively thick uterine lining. This thickness can contribute to more bleeding than usual. It can also cause clots in the menstrual blood when the lining is shed.
Hormone changes may occur for many reasons, including:
- Recent dramatic weight change
- Side effects from some medications, including steroids
- Large uterus. If your uterus has been stretched during pregnancy and does not return to its original size, it may be permanently enlarged. With an enlarged uterus, menstrual blood may have time to collect and clot before it’s released from the body. This could also result in a dark color or thickening of your menstrual flow.
- Obstruction of menstrual blood. Anything that hinders or blocks the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus through the cervix and out of the vagina may lead to problems with clots, color, or thickness of menstrual blood. Benign polyps in the uterus may change the flow of blood during your period. The flow can also be slowed around the time of menopause when the cervical canal may become smaller as estrogen levels drop.
- Adenomyosis or endometriosis. These related conditions occur when the tissue that forms the uterine lining is found in the wrong place. In endometriosis, this tissue develops outside of the uterus. In adenomyosis it grows in the muscle that makes up the uterine walls. Both of these conditions can lead to abnormal periods and heavy flow. This can increase the likelihood of menstrual blood problems such as clotting or thicknes