what are Breast and function
The breast is the upper ventral region of the torso of a primate, in left and right sides, containing the mammary gland which in a female can secrete milk used to feed infants. Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. However, at puberty, female sex hormones, mainly estrogen, promote breast development which does not occur in men due to the higher amount of testosterone. As a result, women’s breasts become far more prominent than those of men. During pregnancy, the breast is responsive to a complex interplay of hormones that cause tissue development and enlargement in order to produce milk. Three such hormones are estrogen, progesterone and prolactin, which cause glandular tissue in the breast and the uterus to change during the menstrual cycle. Each breast contains 15–20 lobes. The subcutaneous adipose tissue covering the lobes gives the breast its size and shape. Each lobe is composed of many lobules, at the end of which are sacs where milk is produced in response to hormonal signals. Glandular structure ( Breast function )The breast is an apocrine gland that produces milk to feed an infant child; for which the nipple of the breast is centered in (surrounded by) an areola (nipple-areola complex, NAC), the skin color of which varies from pink to dark brown, and has many sebaceous glands. The basic units of the breast are the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), which produce the fatty breast milk. They give the breast its offspring-feeding functions as a mammary gland. They are distributed throughout the body of the breast; approximately two-thirds of the lactiferous tissue is within 30 mm of the base of the nipple. The terminal lactiferous ducts drain the milk from TDLUs into 4–18 lactiferous ducts, which drain to the nipple; the milk-glands-to-fat ratio is 2:1 in a lactating woman, and 1:1 in a non-lactating woman. In addition to the milk glands, the breast also is composed of connective tissues (collagen, elastin), white fat, and the suspensory Cooper’s ligaments. Sensation in the breast is provided by the peripheral nervous system innervation, by means of the front (anterior) and side (lateral) cutaneous branches of the fourth-, the fifth-, and the sixth intercostal nerves, which innervates the dermatotic area, supplies sensation to the nipple-areola complex.
BREAST DISEASES AND BREAST PRODUCTS
1. BREAST PRODUCTS (Enlargement) 2 Breast swelling and pain 3.Breast swelling and tenderness 4.Breast swelling during ovulation 5.Breast swelling during pms 6.Breast swelling decrease pregnancy 7. Breast Diseases 8.Breast Reconstruction 9.Breastfeeding 10.Mammography 11.Mastectomy 12. Breast Discharge 13. Breast Lumps, and Fever 14. Fibrocystic Breast Disease 2 Breast swelling and pain Breast pain and swelling can be caused by many things. It can occur when your breasts are swollen to the point where they are tender to the touch and even the touch of clothing can cause pain. This condition can make it very difficult to do the simplest tasks not to mention any type of exercise or even simple movements like walking.Breast swelling can be caused by monthly water retention due to a woman’s menstrual cycle. The water retention can also be caused by excess sodium (salt) in your diet which naturally causes the body to hold more water than it normally requires. Another cause of breast pain and swelling could be fibrocystic breast disease although this is less common than water retention. This is not dangerous but it does cause cysts to form in the breast tissue. Excess caffeine can irritate the condition and cause a great deal of pain. It is best to keep caffeine consumption to a minimum to reduce the pain and swelling. Caffeine also contributes to water retention. Even if you have been diagnosed with fibrocystic breast disease if you should have any new lumps that form you should have it checked by a doctor as a matter of routine. However breast pain due to swelling during the menstrual cycle is usually caused by water retention Breast Pain/Swelling Symptoms Breast pain and swelling can make your clothes and bras uncomfortable to wear due to tenderness to the touch. You may have trouble wearing close fitting tops and find that opting for baggy tee shirts might be a more comfortable compromise. Wearing bras could also prove to be uncomfortable if you have swollen breasts due to excess water retention. The skin on your breasts may also become tight and shiny due to the skin tightening. It is common to experience tenderness when experiencing water retention. You may start going out of your way to avoid bumping into things. Due to the pain many women stop exercises and may limit the amount that they spend walking around. Breast pain and swelling can seriously inhibit normal activity levels. 3.Breast swelling and tenderness What is Breast Pain/Swelling Breast pain and swelling can be caused by many things. It can occur when your breasts are swollen to the point where they are tender to the touch and even the touch of clothing can cause pain. This condition can make it very difficult to do the simplest tasks not to.It is not uncommon for many women to experience breast tenderness and swelling as a result of menopause. The following article provides practical information on handling the symptoms of breast pain as a menopause symptom. The medical term for what most women call “breast pain” is mastodynia or mastalgia. It is often felt as breast soreness, tenderness, heaviness, throbbing, and/or aching, although some women feel sharp stabbing or shooting pains. When it occurs premenstrually and is resolved by the onset of the period, it is called PMS breast tenderness, “cyclical mastalgia,” or “cyclical mastodynia.” And, if you’re reading this article, you may already be familiar with the feeling of tender, swollen, painful breasts for days or even weeks before you get your period. Your breasts may become too painful to touch, whether by a partner, a child, or even yourself. Your bra size may increase; for some women, it becomes painful to wear a bra at all. One of the most difficult aspects of recurrent breast pain is that—as with nearly all pain syndromes—the cause is incompletely understood, so treatment options are too often inadequate, involving uncertain outcomes or intolerable side effects.The most important identifying characteristic of PMS breast tenderness is that it occurs regularly, and cyclically, in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, during the two weeks before the period. Sometimes, breast pain is a woman’s only premenstrual symptom, but more commonly breast swelling and tenderness are part of the spectrum of PMS, accompanied by other emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms. The swelling is usually not confined to the breasts, although that can be the most painful area. Your ankles, hands, feet, and abdomen can also feel swollen—indeed, whole-body bloating is one of the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual tenderness usually occurs in both breasts, although for some women the pain is one-sided, or one side can be much worse than the other.